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Fizyka przyszłości. Nauka do 2100 roku.

Fizyka przyszłości. Nauka do 2100 roku.

Tytuł oryginalny Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100

Autor Michio Kaku
Dodane przez ♂rafar ()
Forma opowiadanie
Gatunek popularnonaukowa
Rok pierwszego wydania 2011
Tagi futurolog, futurologia, przyszłość, nauka, technika, medycyna przyszłości
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♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
we love to watch others and even sit for hours in front of a TV, endlessly watching the antics of our fellow humans, but we instantly get nervous when we feel others watching us. In fact, scientists have calculated that we get nervous if we are stared at by a stranger for about four seconds. After about ten seconds, we even get irate and hostile at being stared at.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
By 2100, when we walk into a room, we will be able to mentally control a computer that in turn will control things around us. Moving heavy furniture, rearranging our desk, making repairs, etc., may be possible by thinking about it. This could be quite useful for workers, fire crews, astronauts, and soldiers who have to operate machinery requiring more than two hands. It could also change the way we interact with the world. We would be able to ride a bike, drive a car, play golf or baseball or elaborate games just by thinking about them.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
Digital computers can calculate at nearly the speed of light. The human brain, by contrast, is incredibly slow. Nerve impulses travel at an excruciatingly slow pace of about 200 miles per hour. But the brain more than makes up for this because it is massively parallel, that is, it has 100 billion neurons operating at the same time, each one performing a tiny bit of computation, with each neuron connected to 10,000 other neurons. In a race, a superfast single processor is left in the dust by a superslow parallel processor. (This goes back to the old riddle: if one cat can eat one mouse in one minute, how long does it take a million cats to eat a million mice? Answer: one minute.)
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
In fact, each of our emotions (hate, jealousy, fear, love, etc.) evolved over millions of years to protect us from the dangers of a hostile world and help us to reproduce. Every emotion helps to propagate our genes into the next generation.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
Furthermore, the human brain is the most complex object that Mother Nature has produced in this section of the galaxy. Since we see no evidence of other intelligent life-forms in our solar system, this means that you have to go out to at least 24 trillion miles, the distance to the nearest star, and even beyond to find an object as complex as the one sitting inside your skull.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
We also see this when psychological profiles of test subjects are analyzed. Psychologists often compare the psychological profiles of adults to their profiles when they were children. Then one asks the question: What is the one quality that predicted their success in marriage, careers, wealth, etc.? When one compensates for socioeconomic factors, one finds that one characteristic sometimes stands out from all the others: the ability to delay gratification. According to the long-term studies of Walter Mischel of Columbia University, and many others, children who were able to refrain from immediate gratification (e.g., eating a marshmallow given to them) and held out for greater long-term rewards (getting two marshmallows instead of one) consistently scored higher on almost every measure of future success, in SATs, life, love, and career.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
WHEN ROBOTS EXCEED HUMANS In one scenario, we puny humans are simply pushed aside as a relic of evolution. It is a law of evolution that fitter species arise to displace unfit species; and perhaps humans will be lost in the shuffle, eventually winding up in zoos where our robotic creations come to stare at us. Perhaps that is our destiny: to give birth to superrobots that treat us as an embarrassingly primitive footnote in their evolution. Perhaps that is our role in history, to give birth to our evolutionary successors. In this view, our role is to get out of their way.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-13
But one problem with pushing these scenarios too far is the Cave Man Principle. As we mentioned earlier, the architecture of our brains is that of a primitive hunter-gatherer who emerged from Africa more than 100,000 years ago. Our deepest desires, our appetites, our wants were all forged in the grasslands of Africa as we evaded predators, hunted for game, foraged in the forests, looked for mates, and entertained ourselves at the campfire. One of our prime directives, buried deep in the fabric of our thoughts, is to look good, especially to the opposite sex and our peers. An enormous fraction of our disposable income, after entertainment, is devoted to our appearance. That is why we have had the explosive growth in plastic surgery, Botox, grooming products, sophisticated clothing, as well as learning new dance steps, muscle building, buying the latest music, and keeping fit. If you add all this up, it becomes a huge portion of consumer spending, which in turn generates a large fraction of the U.S. economy.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-19
one of the founders of the Mayo Clinic kept a private diary when he made the rounds of his patients. He candidly wrote in his diary that there were only two active ingredients in his black bag that actually worked: a hacksaw and morphine. The hacksaw was used to cut off diseased limbs, and the morphine was used to deaden the pain of the amputation. They worked every time. Everything else in his black bag was snake oil and a fake, he lamented sadly.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-19
Since virtually every cell of the body can be created by altering embryonic stem cells, the possibilities are endless. However, Doris Taylor, director of the Center for Cardiovascular Repair at the University of Minnesota, cautions that much work has yet to be done. “Embryonic stem cells represent the good, the bad, and the ugly. When they are good, they can be grown to large numbers in the lab and used to give rise to tissues, organs, or body parts. When they are bad, they don’t know when to stop growing and give rise to tumors. The ugly—well, we don’t understand all the cues, so we can’t control the outcome, and we aren’t ready to use them without more research in the lab,” she notes.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-19
Originally, the demand for test tube babies was enormous, given the legions of infertile couples. But who will clone a human? Perhaps parents mourning the death of a child. Or, more likely, a wealthy, elderly man on his deathbed who has no heirs—or no heirs he particularly cares for—and wants to will all his money to himself as a child, in order to start all over again.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-19
CALORIC RESTRICTION This theory may also explain the strange fact that caloric restriction (that is, lowering the calories we eat by 30 percent or more) increases the life span by 30 percent. Every organism studied so far—from yeast cells, spiders, and insects to rabbits, dogs, and now monkeys—exhibits this strange phenomenon. Animals given this restricted diet have fewer tumors, less heart disease, a lower incidence of diabetes, and fewer diseases related to aging. In fact, caloric restriction is the only known mechanism guaranteed to increase the life span that has been tested repeatedly, over almost the entire animal kingdom, and it works every time.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-19
Apparently, certain reptiles have no known life span. They might even live forever. Alligators and crocodiles simply get larger and larger, but remain as vigorous and energetic as ever. (Textbooks often claim that alligators live to be only seventy years of age. But this is perhaps because the zookeeper died at age seventy. Other textbooks are more honest and simply say that the life span of these creatures is greater than seventy but has never been carefully measured under laboratory conditions.) In reality, these animals are not immortal, because they die of accidents, starvation, disease, etc. But if left in a zoo, they have enormous life spans, almost seeming to live forever.
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-19
So why can’t we pass through solid objects like ghosts? The answer resides in a curious quantum phenomenon. The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons can exist in the same quantum state. Hence when two nearly identical electrons get too close, they repel each other. This is the reason objects appear to be solid, which is an illusion. The reality is that matter is basically empty. When we sit in a chair, we think we are touching it. Actually, we are hovering above the chair, floating less than a nanometer above it, repelled by the chair’s electrical and quantum forces. This means that whenever we “touch” something, we are not making direct contact at all but are separated by these tiny atomic forces. (This also means that if we could somehow neutralize the exclusion principle, then we might be able to pass through walls. However, no one knows how to do this.)
♂rafar (), dodano 2013-09-19
So why don’t we have quantum computers sitting on our desks, solving the mysteries of the universe? Lloyd admitted to me the real problem that has stymied research in quantum computers is the disturbances from the outside world that destroy the delicate properties of these atoms. When atoms are “coherent” and vibrating in phase with one another, the tiniest disturbances from the outside world can ruin this delicate balance and make the atoms “decohere,” so they no longer vibrate in unison. Even the passing of a cosmic ray or the rumble of a truck outside the lab can destroy the delicate spinning alignment of these atoms and destroy the computation. The decoherence problem is the single most difficult barrier to creating quantum computers. Anyone who can solve the problem of decoherence will not only win a Nobel Prize but also become the richest man on earth.
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